Career and Goals for Working Women

Published: 2021-09-29 16:00:05
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Category: Gender, Marriage, Goals

Type of paper: Essay

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Today women have created significant developmental role in all departments of life, Almost women excel her capacitates more than men like in the field of sports and creative artistic competitions like in offices, industries she has made her name in every field of social and economic status Women prove herself in every professional role being as teachers and nurse in the medical field. Still there is no profession exist in which women are not competing with the men.
Women take part in every emerging profession which are considered the gender sensitive for the women like politics, police, hostess, clerk's etc. Women are striving for developing trade and industries, administration, research and other developmental activities. In the developed world, women's are side by side with the men to improve the socio economic conditions of her family.
States has given equal professional growth opportunities to women as women are the near about one half of the population of the universe. Women are considered the most fundamental fact create sustainable development for the future generations. If God would not create the women it will lead ultimately no universe existence on earth. Women have set of role like in shape of mother, sister, wife and other relation associated with the man to accomplish the definition of family.



Islam has also define the dignity and respect of the women, Islam also emphasis women rights which are merely equal with the men. Islam is a complete code of life and given rights to humans before 1400 years ago, when humanity is in ignorance and have system of rights to the women, women's were treated as slaves, and the men had all the rights to use women as a product. In the modern World, people are making propaganda about the rights of women, different social organizations are spending millions of budget to harmonizing and sensitizing society regarding promotion of women rights.
Work Life Balance of Women employee has become an important subject since the women are equally sharing the earning responsibility for the betterment of their family. Women are getting into jobs and they continue to work even after marriage. A married woman has more responsibility than man in taking care of young children and family. The working women efficiently overcome difficult situations by their commitment and perseverance.
Career and goals are the most important factors in life. Most of the women are coming forward to work in order to support their family. This change is now natural and dynamic due to change of environment and economic conditions.
"Marriage is one of the most intense human relationships. The quality of this relationship is continually redefined by spouses and is potentially crucial to their overall experience of family life" (Pimentel, 2000). The universality of marriage does not mean that everybody in every society gets married. It means only that most people in every society get married at least once in their life time. Marriage and family, the two social institutions with biological foundation, are complementary to each other. Both have a long standing history of their own. Marriage is one of the universal social institutions.
It is established by the human society to control and regulate the sex life of human being. Marriage merely means a socially approved sexual and economic union between a woman and a man. On the other hand, marriage is the legal union of male and female. When one reaches marriageable age, he or she subconsciously or consciously enters to the spousal supply and demand system in which comparison, selection and marriage occur. It is closely connected with the institution of family. Rao has extracted from Gillin and Gillin as "Marriage is a socially approved way of establishing a family of procreation"; As Westermarck has remarked, "Marriage is rooted in the family rather than the family in the marriage" (Rao, 2002).
When we say that marriage is universal, we do not mean that marriage and family customs are the same in all societies. On the contrary, there is much variation from society to society in how one marries, whom one marries, and how many persons one marries. The universal culture about marriage is that no society permits people to marry parents, brothers, or sisters. The family often includes more individuals than parents and their immature offspring; it may include two or more related married couples and their children. Marriage is an institution of society which can have very different cultures. Its purposes, functions and forms may differ from society to society, but it is present everywhere as an institution (Rao, 2002).
1.1. Multiple roles and professional women(Super DE,1980) identified six common life roles. He indicated that the need to balance these different roles simultaneously is a reality for most individuals at various stages throughout their lives. Rather than following a transitional sequence from one role to another, women are required to perform an accumulation of disparate roles simultaneously, each one with its unique pressures.
Campbell et al. studied the effects of family life on women's job performance and work attitudes. The result revealed that women with children were significantly lower in occupational commitment relative to women without children; contrary to expectation, women with younger children outperformed women with older children.
Makowska, studied psychosocial determinants of stress and well-being among working women. The significance of the work-related stressors was evidently greater than that of the stressors associated with the family function, although the relationship between family functioning, stress and well-being was also significant. Most medical students and physicians aspire to have three lifetime roles: doctor, spouse, and parent.
The goals and activities of each of these roles will inevitably compete with one another and lead to role conflict, something female physicians have traditionally experienced as they have struggled to balance domestic responsibilities with a demanding medical career. Young male physicians may also be experiencing higher levels of role conflict than they have in past decades, as societal role expectations change. Men are juggling their traditional burden as "breadwinner" with recent demands to help with family responsibilities (Los Angeles Times. June 16, 1996:A1).
Work-Family Conflict Perspectives
Initially, work-family literature focused on the negative psychological effects of juggling work and family roles. The phrase "work-family conflict" (WFC) emerged in the 1980s, with the sharp increase in women's participation in the workforce. The change in employee demographics challenged the gendered ideology of men as the primary breadwinner and women as the stay at home mother. The traditional gendered sex-role connotes the conflict that arises when women attempt to fulfill the responsibilities of both roles. According to role theory, work-family conflict occurs because of an inter-role conflict in which the role demands of one sphere (work or family) are incompatible with the role demands of another sphere (work or family).
The assumption that work and family are separate spheres and in competition for resources such as time and attention continues to be dominant in our society (Barnett, 1998). Related to inter-role conflict is the "scarcity hypothesis," which states that human energy and resources are fixed and limited. Thus, individuals partake in a zero-sum game in which resources expended in one sphere deplete those available for the other, leading to diminished role quality in the sphere that received less resource (Gutek, Searle, ; 5 Klepa, 1991).
Data from nearly 20 years ago indicate that 38% of male physicians and 58% of female physicians' reported career-family conflicts. Those conflicts have broad ramifications. Family obligations have delayed careers for up to two thirds of female physicians and a quarter of male physicians. Physicians' mental health, job satisfaction, and job performance may have suffered .Family relationships may also be strained as work-related issues spill over into home life.
Most distressingly, high work demands for either parent can have negative values on parenting attitudes, the home Environment, and ultimately on children's cognitive and emotional development. Despite the overwhelming potential for role conflict among married physicians, there is a lack of recent information regarding its prevalence and resulting career changes among physicians in this country.
As such information would be useful to medical students and young physicians choosing professional paths, to physicians contemplating career changes, and to health services administrators concerned with workforce productivity, we conducted a cross sectional study of married Southern California physicians with children with two purposes in mind: to evaluate gender and generational differences regarding role conflict among married physicians with children; and to evaluate gender and generational differences in career changes made for marriage and family among married physicians with children.
Marriage and established family life are the unique qualities of human being, which makes them to be an integral element of social life. It's a union in which two individuals from different background and personality traits interact and cohabit together for cause of establishing a family. As it's an interaction and mutual understanding between two unique personalities, there are chances of having conflict and adjustment problems.
Marriage is the primary source of individual happiness and meaning in life. These fulfillment, happiness and positive development will be possible only when the relationship between couples is coherent and satisfactory. Due to the influx of women into the paid workforce in the last half century, the balance of family dynamics has shifted significantly. For the couple particularly, the impact of both spouses working increases the number of stressors in their marital relationship.
Family can be widely thought of as a social union which requires certain activities (i.e., tasks) to be performed. Especially when both spouses are employed, the process of allocation of individuals to these activities may require spouses to negotiate (Scanzoni, 1982), which can be an important source of conflict within marriage. In that case, employment and earnings can be important resources which give relative bargaining power to each spouse in these negotiations (Lundberg ;Pollak, 1993).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In today's world there is a streamlined universal culture in which women's are allowed for doing to meet their family needs. This is a visible change that women possess autonomous employments opportunities and eliminating their stigma which is traditionally associated with the women role and gender attributes.
Women has develop their significant role to prove herself as change agent in the society. This diverse progress improve the socio economic conditions of women in society and increase the level of dignity. Women are facing problems like engaging multitasking roles and responsibilities which are creating the role conflict for the women. Women are responsible for performing multi roles like handling workplace organization related matters, she is managing her children at home and performing other tasks at the same time.
In the whole situation, Working women are dealing with the higher level of anxiety and stress while managing the multi household tasks which are creating serious disruption the family matters.
Family is a basic element of any developed society, it has fundamental role in arranging all parts of the family under one unit. In case of any disruption, family functions lose whole balance and disturb the whole structure. This role may be in form of any relation it may be a mother or a wife. Davison of labor is not defined in our society, so that why women are considered the most neglected and unattended part of the society, these differences causes problems in the social positing of women in the family.
Significance of the study
The reason for choosing this topic is to pinpoint the issue of work-life con?ict faced by women, which is a signi?cant dilemma which needs to be addressed, in order to develop strategies that will provide support for women who are balancing work-life and family-life. In fact, there exists a gap that can be analyzed and explored further by studying the relationship between work-life con?ict and the dual responsibilities of women.
Moreover, an argument can be given for further reducing this con?ict because dual earning families are increasing in both industrial and non-industrial countries, where women at work are confronting the same quandary around work-home issues. It is therefore necessary to seriously tackle this issue to prevent it from becoming a dilemma in the future.
It is possible to accept that as more and more women have entered the workforce, there is no longer a solid family-support at home (Schwarts, 1992). "Women have increased their participation in paid employment considerably during the past 30 years, but men have not increased their participation in housework to the same extent" (Evertsson and Nermo, 2004).
Women working in some industries, factories, banks, hospitals etc. complain that they do not get time to look after and give care to their babies. The efficiency of a working woman is always suspected and questioned by most people, especially their male counterparts. In the upper class crews, it is generally seen that all qualifications remaining similar, men are usually preferred.
Authorities are doubtful whether women would be able to handle male subordinates, take independent decisions, cope with crisis and manage their duties properly (Andal,2002). Even though women prove they are efficient, authorities think twice before promoting them and even if women are given the chance, there is always a remark that they were given the position because they were women.
The present study therefore aims at finding out the impact and signi?cance regarding the women job and mutual understanding with family in the field of medical at the Hospital of Chaudhary Pervez Elawhi Institute Of Cardiology Multan the city of Pakistan. The possible reason for choosing this topic is to pinpoint the issue of work and mutual understanding of the family that face by married female doctors, which is a signi?cant problem which needs to be address, in order to develop strategies that is provide support for female doctors who are balancing work-life and family-life
.
1.3. Objectives of the Study

To investigate the effects of working female doctors on their children.
To examine the influence of wives job on her partner.
To explore the socio economic factors effect on working women.
To find out possible solutions to overcome expected roles regarding family Conflict

1.4. HYPOTHESIS
Less mother's involvement in children leads to mental and physical disorder in the children.
Working women may face the health issues.
1.5. Implication of the Study
The study would help us in understanding the present status of women in our society what
Kind of problems they are going through.

To find out possible solutions for problems and issues faced by working women Doctors.
To find out the problems that faced by married female Doctors and also that problems create gap in mutual understanding with family.
The study can yield results that can help us in better understanding the problems and challenges faced by working women.
Some solutions can be offered for betterment of working women that face work family conflict issues.

1.6. Limitations of the Study
All methodical inquiries are subjected to few limitations, although these may differ with respect to the magnitude of limitations. The findings of the present study are subject to the following limitations:

The study area was confined to one Hospital (CPEIC). Thus the results of the study are applicable only to similar kind of situation analysis.
The study pertain to a certain time period. The result may not be valid for over a longer period of time due to fast changing socio-economic and socio-cultural setting in this study area.
Because of limitation of time and other resources involved in research, the present study was restricted to a limited number of samples. The result drawn from this study, therefore may have limited application i.e., it cannot be assumed to provide information, capable of generalization over other regions and could have regional biasness, but surely the broad similarities specific to a particular gender, will provide some insight to the study.

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