As a preschool owner/educator, I remember so vividly the twenty-four hours I decided to go forth an unbelievable 13-year calling as a public school instructor in one of Ohio 's wealthiest school territories to have and run my ain preschool. This was non an easy determination, because I love learning ; go forthing the schoolroom was one of the hardest professional determinations I have of all time made. However, the criterions and standardised testing that were ordering our course of study patterns were in complete struggle with my beliefs. Fortunately, I had options and decided to remain in instruction by traveling to younger ages, which at the clip, seemed exempt from the open force per unit area of standardised testing. I envisioned a installation that embraced drama as the primary acquisition doctrine - 1 that valued child involvements and focal point groups, one that integrated multicultural aspects.
I could non be more pleased with my determination to walk off from an astonishing retirement, nice wage, and summers off with my ain kids to offer my ideals to other immature scholars. Small did I realize that the same incubuss that plagued me antecedently would go on to stalk me at my preschool. Although research on drama and cognitive development provide a batch of support for the play-based course of study for our immature kids, the recent province and national accent on proficiency trial public presentation has reinforced the construct of minimum drama clip, even in the primary scene. Many preschools and simple schools have reduced or even eliminated drama from their agendas ( Bodrova & A ; Leong, 2003 ; Brandon, 2002 ; Johnson, 1998 ; Murline, 2000 ; Vail 2003 ) . Play, even the little sections, are being replaced with academic preparedness patterns, peculiarly literacy and reading to fit the content of standardised testing ( Brandon, 2002 ; Fromberg, 1990 ; Johnson, 1998 ; Steinhauer, 2005 ; Vail, 2003 ) .
The changeless battle for answerability, every bit good as `` top-down criterions and coercive force per unit area to raise tonss on an eternal series of standardised trial '' - ( Kohn, 2004, p.572 ) , in add-on to the conflict of bettering instruction, all seem to be ordering current educational tendencies. Even if a plan embraces the importance of drama, the outer forces that continue to press for faculty members is invariably endangering the foundation from which our immature kids build their educational hereafter. `` We strip them of their best innate assurance in directing their ain acquisition, travel rapidly them along, and frequently wear them out. '' ( Almon, 2003, p.20 ) . This push for a more academic foundation in the early old ages may happen us losing sight of the existent intent of larning. If we continue down this way of making a test-prep course of study in which our accent is on how the kid scores on a reading trial instead than on leting kids to read for pleasance and information after go forthing school, we might bring forth rather the opposite consequence and negatively impact cognitive development.
However, the planetary challenge that the Information Age has imposed on us has similarly prompted instruction functionaries to redefine school accomplishment. The authorities 's move to set up educational criterions through the ( No Child Left Behind Act ) NCLB was based on the diminution of instruction criterions since the start of the 70s ( Peterson, 2003 ) . At present, most schools implement standard-based course of study, formal rating methods, and numerical scaling system in response to the call for a wider educational transmutation. Suffice to advert, the U.S. ranks merely 19th in the Literacy Index established by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) ( 2007 ) . Such informations support the current tendency in instruction, and connote the demand of preschool pedagogues to react consequently. In this consideration, it is worthwhile to weigh what we know about the significance of play-based course of study as it contradicts with what functionaries in Higher Education promote, the standard-based course of study. With the aid of parents who themselves have witnessed the relevancy of play-based course of study to the current instruction system and to the broader facets of their kids 's lives, this survey shall derive fresh findings on how parents understand the play-based course of study. Knowing how parents understand play-based course of study is of import, it will supply insight into what information parents draw upon in doing early educational determinations for their kids. .
Since parents are the 1s who decide where to inscribe their kids, it would be best to larn how they feel towards play-based course of study. To procure a intelligent research determination, during this survey I will concentrate on interviews, observations and documents/documentation, with parents whose kids are presently enrolled in a play-based course of study. I plan to interview five parents ; carry oning three interviews: a Life History interview, a Current Context interview that includes a sum-up of their present state of affairs, and a Follow up interview. In add-on to the three interviews, observations will be conducted and artefacts will be collected to heighten the informations aggregation.
I presently own and operate a preschool situated in a Northeastern Ohio suburb. The demographics environing my school consist of upper in-between category, educated, two-parent families. In the recent yesteryear, we were runing with 248 Caucasic households but have noticed a cultural tendency altering our school 's population: we now house six native Asiatic households, eight native Indian households, three Afro-american households, and two biracial households out of a sum of 257 households. This tendency, I believe, is due to a new 30-acre infirmary installation opening across the street. This survey will take topographic point in a similar preschool. The commercial trade name preschool ( anonym ) has similar demographics and utilizes a play-based course of study.
As I tour households, I am ever assured that parents want the best for their kids. The determination to go forth a immature kid to a non-family member is hard but common, and it is what brought me to this point in my life: a 43 year-old female parent of two girls, ages 10 and 13, prosecuting a PhD in Curriculum and Instruction with an early childhood focal point.
A really attractive, well-groomed adult female in her thirtiess, entered my school anteroom keeping an expensive pocketbook, and armed with a list of inquiries, began her pursuit for the perfect child care supplier. This well-spoken ma has a two-year-old boy and an infant girl. She, an lawyer and her hubby, a occupant physician, merely moved to our community from Washington, DC. My tour involves a short debut of myself and my background, every bit good as the school 's. I ever include a short description of our doctrine, which includes drama, a circuit of the installation, an debut to all instructors, and, eventually, a meeting in my office where we address all inquiries on their list. Such a list typically includes: safety and security, ratios, ill policy, subject policy, sanitation processs, tiffin and bite, tuition, etc. In this case, course of study was ne'er mentioned, even after I spoke of our play-based doctrine, our Flex Learning Program, etc. Such things did non look of import to this ma. She asked about instructor turnover, how many babies were presently enrolled, how many instructors were in the schoolroom, and if her babe would be rocked to kip. She asked if her immature yearling would see the gym, which is located in the older edifice ; if he would travel outside every twenty-four hours ; and if he could take part in karate and association football. Literature back uping everything discussed during the circuit, including course of study issues, was handed to her, every bit good as a concern card with the web reference for any extra information.
This is really much a typical circuit. The female parent called subsequently to denote that her determination was complete and her kids would be get downing the following Monday. That was two old ages ago. Her kids still attend my school full clip, now ages three and five. Both childs are in the West installation that houses older kids: older Preschool, Pre K, Jr-K, K, and after school classrooms/program. Her kids are booming academically and socially. Yet, two old ages subsequently, her concern shifted to academic preparedness. She made an assignment with me to reexamine the Ohio Pre K criterions which she received from her neighbour. Our hour-and-half hr meeting consisted of illustrations of merely how these criterions are being implemented, met, and mastered without the usage of paper/pencil, bore, skill worksheets, and appraisal tools. Although our doctrine has non changed, nor has her desire for her kids to hold merriment, the fright of success in school has crept into this ma 's thought. Walking through her boy 's and girl 's schoolrooms daily and detecting childs edifice blocks, making dramatic drama, utilizing sand and H2O, and working at art Stationss, reassures her that the childs are so holding merriment, but what are they larning? How can she be certain they will be prepared for `` school? ''
This has me presenting several opposing inquiries. What are parents ' beliefs
and attitudes towards an early childhood play-based course of study, and has their beliefs and attitudes changed since come ining the play-based plan? What grounds can I offer parents that play-based course of study is an appropriate course of study for primary school preparedness? How do I recommend for kindergartners as a clip in life to care for drama as a footing for holistic development and acquisition?
It is my desire, as a strong advocator of drama for little kids, to better understand where parents are coming from, how they are informed, and what they draw upon to do their concluding decisions. Therefore, in my survey, I will ask from parents their beliefs and attitude about play-based course of study in the hope of better apprehension where parents are coming from. This information will better inform instructors in their parent instruction patterns every bit good as parents in their hunt for a preschool.
Approximately Early on Childhood Education Programs
Early on childhood instruction plans provide foundational acquisition experiences to really immature kids in readying for formal schooling. Early childhood instruction plans strive to supply kids with the basic accomplishments in literacy and numeracy, which are important for all degrees of instruction, while, at the same clip, supplying the societal, emotional, and cultural interaction that kids need for adulthood and societal development. There is a broad fluctuation in kid attention plans in the United States runing from basic care-based, and sometimes merely custodial-based attention to nationally accredited early childhood plans such as those promoted by the National Association for the Education of Young Children ( NAEYC ) . A figure of early childhood instruction theoretical accounts are in topographic point: Montessori, Reggio-Emilia, Waldorf, Play-Based, and Academics-Based, each holding a different doctrine and educational aim, but all nisus to lend to the preparedness of kids for formal direction ( Singer, Singer, Plaskon, & A ; Schweder, 2003 ) .
Earlier theories on kid development do non straight stipulate drama as an indispensable facet of cognitive development yet constructivist theories recognize it as an of import factor impacting kids 's involvement and societal development. In add-on, neuroscience contributes to the position that physical and age-related drama enhances encephalon, physical, and overall development ( Frost 1998 ) .
The societal constructivist theory is the force that determines this survey. It claims that persons ' perceptual experiences of the `` world '' around them shape their ideas and behaviour ( Berger & A ; Luckman, 1966 ) and that the building of significance is a procedure `` forged in the melting pot of mundane interactionaˆ¦meanings are negotiated, exchanged, and modified through mundane interactions with others '' ( Rosenholtz, 1989, p. 3 ) . It besides says that people construct their ain apprehension and cognition of the universe through sing and reflecting upon those experiences.
Constructivism posits that kids develop their ain constructs of things based on anterior cognition and experience. Guided by people, anterior cognition or experience, they perceive, analyze, and finally do up their ain thoughts sing the universe. Therefore, anterior accomplishments used at drama may be applied relevantly to other state of affairss, such as job resolution, analysis, or decision-making. This makes play an of import portion of kids 's life, as it serves as the debut to higher accomplishments and more hard challenges of life.
In peculiar, Lev Vygotsky ( cited in Palmer, 2004 ) , a well-known constructivist supports the importance of drama in the kid 's development. In his last talk, `` Play and the Psychological Development of the Child, Vygotsky emphasized the importance of drama during the kid 's early old ages. Harmonizing to him, drama is portion of a kid 's Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD ) . ZPD is the difference between what a kid can make and what s/he can non. During drama, the kid behaves beyond his age, and discovers new ways of making things such as different forms and highs of blocks. As the kid does this, s/he explores the deepnesss of ZPD, which consequences to a better acquisition ability.
In the same manner, neuroscience provides support for kid 's drama. Frost ( 1998 ) paperss that encephalon development is farther improved as kids engage in age-appropriate drama. Conversely, he illustrates that want of drama could ensue in `` deviant behaviour '' ( 8 ) . It can be gathered that in Vgotsky 's societal constructivist theory, parents form an apprehension when it comes to placing the `` fit '' academic environment for their kid based on their outlooks
Research Methodology Focus and Questions
Based on the ends of this survey, the employment of methodological analysis through the acquisition of narrative enquiry and the instance survey design are appropriate. Narrative instance survey will be used for this research undertaking as it will let me, the research worker, to witness and describe a descriptive scene in order to portion experiences
This survey adopts the instance survey design with the position that single instances provide more in-depth information. Case surveies focus on the person, his/her experiences, and immediate world, which is needed to deduce significance and apprehension of the issue or concept under scrutiny. Furthermore, it provides existent illustrations from existent people who are unencumbered by the usage of preset steps or studies, and whose responses will merely ensue in Numberss and statistics ( Bogdan & A ; Biklen, 2007 ) . In this survey, persons, the parents ( either female parent or male parent in one household ) should hold a kid or kids who are enrolled in a school that implements play-based course of study. These persons will be interviewed and asked to portion their narratives based on open-ended inquiries that correspond to the over-arching research inquiries. In making so, the persons ' experiences and beliefs will be discussed in order to get at a better apprehension of the research subject, which regards parents beliefs and attitudes of a play-based course of study. It is expected that other factors such as race, faith, and socioeconomic position would act upon the experiences and ideas of parents. Therefore, the parents selected for the survey will come from different backgrounds. In add-on to the three planned interviews, observations including parent/ instructor conferences, PTO meetings, assorted parent jubilations such as `` A Day in the Life of PreSchooler '' , `` Muffins With Mom '' , `` ( Root ) Beer and Pretzels with Dad '' , Parents Night Out, Parents ' Information Evening etc will be observed. Artifacts such as Parent Handbook, School 's literature including the school 's mission statement, pupil rights, pupil portfolio information will be submitted to supplement
For the intent of this survey I will besides be pulling on narrative enquiry ( Clandinin & A ; Connelly, 2000 ) to look into five parents beliefs and attitudes towards a drama -based early childhood course of study within a in private owned early childhood installation. Coming from the societal constructivist position, I believe that experiences are important. Clandinin & A ; Connelly besides suggest experience is important in their three dimensional model for analyzing how the participants past, present and future contexts act upon their beliefs and attitudes towards a drama -based early childhood course of study. Concentrating on narrative enquiry will assist me to underdtand how parents beliefs and attitudes towards a play-based early childhood course of study have been established. This alone attack is attractive because it provides the chance for the parents ' voices to be heard. In understanding their beliefs and attitudes of a play-based early childhood course of study, narrative enquiry will let me to research how their beliefs and attitudes affect their decsion to inscribe or non in enroll in a installation that promotes a play-based curriuculum and how these beliefs and attitudes have evolved, through the narratives that they portion.
This survey will utilize the narrative in-depth interview as a qualitative information aggregation method, which can arouse far richer information than a study. Further, interviews offer the research worker a means to clear up responses and validate participant responses. Cohen et Al. ( 2000 ) posited that single behaviours can merely be understood by understanding persons ' readings of the universe around them. Therefore, meaningful societal action demands to be interpreted from the point of position of the histrions or the people who are in that peculiar state of affairs. It can be said that parents who have already enrolled their kid in a play-based preschool would of course experience more strongly about it than parents who have non sent their kid to a play-based preschool ( Bryman, 2004 ) .
This qualitative instance survey will analyze preschool parents ' beliefs and attitudes utilizing a narrative enquiry data-collection scheme in order to showcase the experiences and perceptual experiences of parents towards play-based course of study in early childhood plans. Case survey and narrative enquiry seek to understand the peculiar inside informations in a historically and socially bounded context ( Clandinin & A ; Connelly, 2000 ) .
Main Research Questions
The chief research inquiry for this survey is `` what are parents beliefs and attitudes towards an early childhood play-based course of study? ''
Supporting Research Questions
I have identified several back uping research inquiries to reflect upon throughout Clandinin and Connelly ( 2000 ) 3-dimensional interviewing procedure. In looking forward/backward I am interested in understanding how persons ' life histories inform their current beliefs and attitudes towards play-based course of studies. In looking inward/outward I am interested in understanding what outside factors influence their current beliefs and attitudes towards play-based curriculums..
What are their beliefs on drama?
What are parents ' beliefs sing developmentally appropriate patterns?
What are parents ' perceptual experiences of early acquisition?
What grounds can I offer parents that play-based course of study is an appropriate course of study for primary school preparedness?
How do I recommend for kindergartners as a clip in life to care for drama as a footing for holistic development and acquisition?
. Childs have different demands and the preschool plan should be able to turn to those demands. From my experience, I have found that parents frequently choose preschools that are child-friendly ; that is, they have passed safety criterions, provide plenty learning stuffs, employ qualified and caring instructors, and maintain an attractive installation. Rarely do parents inquire about the school 's course of study or its academic offerings. In my experience, parents expect preschools to learn kids rudimentss like forms, colourss, alphabet, Numberss, and reading. Most preschools integrate these basic accomplishments into their acquisition plans, but each preschool differs in how the said accomplishments are presented to the kids for learning intents.
Researching parents ' beliefs and attitudes would assist place the relevancy of play-based course of study, whether it has helped ease their kids 's preparedness and ability to larn and develop accomplishments needed for the `` existent school '' or for mundane life. Furthermore, their responses will function as valuable penetrations to pedagogues in general, including those who are non implementing drama.
Sing its focal point, play-based course of study may be mostly misperceived as non supplying adequate attending to accomplishments and acquisition. Besides, the current standard-based instruction being implemented, may see drama unimportant, therefore curtail clip for it or wholly disregard it. Such would be deterrent to kids whose basic needs include drama and merriment. In this position, the inquiries that I would wish to elaborate on include: What are parents ' beliefs and attitudes towards play-based course of study? What factors led to the development of these beliefs and attitudes? How do/did play-based course of study affect their kids 's acquisition and development? and How do parents ' beliefs and attitudes sing drama impact the execution of play-based course of study and standard-based curriculum/formal direction?
Purpose of the Study
I believe it is of import for all parents to hold a thorough apprehension of the course of study that their kid will be sing, whether in preschool or in any other educational scene. Preschools enjoy a certain sum of flexibleness in how they teach immature kids. Different learning theoretical accounts are available, and some schools integrate two theoretical accounts ( i.e, Montessori and Reggio Emilia ) . When parents know and understand the course of study of their kid 's preschool, they are more likely to go involved in the school 's activities. They so cognize how to reenforce their kid 's acquisition at place, and tend to join forces more with instructors ( Sission, 2009 ) .
My quest to understand the beliefs and attitudes of five parents towards a play-based course of study has multiple intents. First, is to supply readers and the early childhood instruction sector with information refering parental beliefs and attitudes towards play-based course of study ; 2nd, to larn how, harmonizing to parents ' positions has play-based course of study affected their kids 's acquisition and development ; and 3rd, to spot whether they believe it serves as an effectual tool for early childhood instruction.
Statement of the Problem
Early on childhood research workers have reported that immature kids learn best through activities that support the development of the whole kid ( Elkind 2001 ) . David Elkind ( 2001 ) , in a piece reminiscent of Piaget 's constructivist positions, entitled `` Young Einstein: Much Too Early, '' argued that immature kids learn best through direct interaction with their environment. Before a certain age, they merely are non capable of the degree of concluding necessary for formal direction. However, national concern with answerability, competition, proving and `` back-to-basics, '' puts an over-emphasis on faculty members and single-subject instruction ( Elkind, 2007 ; Ornstein, 2002 ; Perrone, 2000 ) . In response to these concerns, early childhood plans may concentrate the course of study on the instruction of academic accomplishments ( Morrison, 2004 ) . These factors have led to narrowly-defined course of study, which deny immature kids valuable life experiences found in drama. Although a turning concern on math and linguistic communication ability in the higher twelvemonth degrees has prompted the execution of standard-based course of study, it is non plenty to enforce such sort of system in the preschool degree. In the first topographic point, kids are a batch different from grownups in their ways to larn. Unlike grownups, kids, particularly little 1s, need drama ( Ginsburg, 2007 ) ; they need to be interested in what they do in order to go on with it. Therefore, the demand for drama in the preschool should non be disregarded. However, the significance of drama in direction should be supported by research and by parents ' belief in the course of study. Therefore, a survey of the parents ' beliefs and attitudes towards a play-based early childhood course of study may supply information utile to instructors and decision makers when be aftering schemes for implementing a successful preschool plan.
With the demand for effectivity, trial accomplishment tonss, and answerability, many preschool plans have adopted and reinforced formal direction, and have used drama as a recreational period instead than a learning medium. In an Oregon state-wide study sent to all kindergarten instructors and principals with first-grade instructors, Hitz and Wright ( 1998 ) found that 64 per centum of kindergarten instructors, 61 per centum of principals, and 72 per centum of first-grade instructors reported that formal academic direction was more prevailing in kindergarten than it was 10 to 20 old ages ago. In this scenario, originative look may be considered non every bit of import as cognitive development. Creativity may be viewed as irrelevant to the development of thought and job resolution. Conversely, it is possible that instructors and decision makers have adopted academic direction and other formal patterns, even though most of them considered such developmentally inappropriate. This last scenario implies the loss or deficiency of academic freedom among pedagogues, therefore beliing democratic rules.
Early on childhood pedagogues have shown concern with the type of direction used in their instruction plans. Practices used in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten categories reflected an environmentalist-behaviorist position, even though instructors reported holding other positions. From a survey of instructor pattern, Hatch and Freeman ( 1988 ) found that two-thirds of early childhood instructors were implementing plans in struggle with their doctrines refering kids 's acquisition. Early childhood experts have long asserted that plans for immature kids should supply for the development of societal, emotional, physical, cognitive, and originative accomplishments, but the abovementioned findings do non reflect this anymore. In short, there is a spread between research workers ' recommendations and instructors ' patterns ( Bredekamp, 1997 ; Logue, Eheart, & A ; Leavitt, 1996 ) .
Parents are the make up one's minding authorization when it comes to the type of instruction that their kids should have. Their beliefs and attitudes towards a course of study and later their determinations are typically influenced by their ain beliefs, experiences, and attitudes. As a effect, their positions affect the execution of plans for immature kids. This survey does non corroborate that parents ' positions sing course of study execution are sufficient to implement a favourable plan. However, it considers their positions because they form portion of kids 's acquisition environment. It is of import to derive their positions about play-based instruction because aside from the instructor, they are the 1s who have entree to information sing their kids 's development and ability whether in school or outside it.
As an experient primary pedagogue, and a current preschool proprietor and pedagogue, I am interested in parents ' beliefs and attitudes towards an early childhood play-based course of study and whether their determination to inscribe their kid in a play-based course of study is borne out of their apprehension of the plan or other factors. I personally believe in the play-based course of study and would wish to find if this attitude is shared by the parents. If they do non, I would wish to cognize the footing for their disfavor of the course of study. Parents of my pupils are informed of our play-based course of study at registration. Despite this, nevertheless, some still face me with incredulity about the course of study. As an pedagogue and concern proprietor, this survey would take me to a better apprehension of parents ' beliefs and attitudes approximately play as a vehicle for larning Understanding how parents understand play-based course of study is important and will add to the literature in many ways. In researching how parents understand play-based course of study this survey will lend to current literature available offering new thoughts
Contributions to the Research
Children 's drama has come under renewed onslaught. Inspired by my ain experiences as a preschool proprietor I hope to lend through this narrative instance survey assorted lived narratives of parents and how their beliefs and attitudes towards a play-based early childhood course of study have evolved. Since parents are the `` clients '' of early childhood plans, is it of import to understand their beliefs and attitudes.
While there is plentifulness of research back uping play-based course of studies in the early childhood schoolroom, it is largely from the pedagogues ' and child 's position point, literature is missing in this country as it pertains to the parents, their ain beliefs and attitudes. While non meant to portray generalised information the rich descriptive narratives of these five parents will stand for the larger community.
In chapter two of this research proposal, Literature Review, I describe the context in which preschool plans, play-based course of study, and parental picks have been studied in the yesteryear, and the deductions of research findings to current pattern. . The literature reappraisal is organized from the general to the particular, which means that a general overview of preschool plans is provided, followed by a treatment of the play-based course of study, and reasoning with parents pick.
. In chapter three, Methodology, I further depict the usage of instance survey and the narrative enquiry attack to warrant the usage of such methods and design as proposed for this survey. The chapter besides provides the description of the research scene, the research sample, the informations assemblage process, information analysis, the timeline, and cogency and dependability concerns, every bit good as the awaited restrictions of the survey. The chief research inquiry every bit good as the back uping inquiries will be outlined in item as good within the chapter three.
Chapter four, Findings, will pull on common subjects that exist within the participants narratives that describe their beliefs and attitudes towards an early childhood play-based course of study. The deductions this research has on informing the preschool community will be found within chapter five, the concluding chapter, Discussions and Implications.
Preschool Plans: refers to the pre-kindergarten plans that are geared towards fixing kids ages 2-5 old ages old for kindergarten. The plans offer assorted services for different age groups and follow different course of study theoretical accounts. In this survey, preschool plans refer to the scene and object of the research work.
Curriculum Models: refers to an educational system that combines theory with pattern. A course of study theoretical account has a theory and cognition base that reflects a philosophical orientation and is supported, in changing grades, by kid development research and educational rating. The practical application of a course of study theoretical account includes guidelines on how to put up the physical environment, construction the activities, interact with kids and their households, and support staff members in their initial preparation and on-going execution of the plan. In this survey, the theoretical account used by the preschool plan is a play-based course of study.
Play-based course of study: refers to the larning theoretical account based on developmentally appropriate drama. This theoretical account is child-centered ; it is based on kids 's involvement to guarantee maximized engagement, focal point, and acquisition.
Developmentally appropriate patterns: patterns that are `` designed for the age group served and implemented with attending to the demand and differences of the single kids enrolled '' ( Bredekamp, 1998 p. 53 ) . In this survey, developmentally appropriate patterns refer to the instruction patterns of kindergarten instructors as manifested in their categories.
Beliefs: refer to a set of thoughts or ideas that a individual finds of import or that influences his or her feelings, attitudes, and behaviour. Beliefs are subjective and can be measured by inquiring participants to clarify their ideas on a certain subject or issue.
Attitudes: refer to a societal concept that is predetermined by a individual 's beliefs. If the belief is negative, so the attitude toward the issue or job is besides negative. Attitudes are associated with stereotypes of what is socially acceptable.
Feelingss: refer to the affectional constituent of an person 's belief and attitude towards a certain issue or subject. Feelingss are associated with the personal experience and rating of the said issue.
Understanding/Perception: refers to the entirety of the person 's beliefs, attitudes, and feelings towards a certain issue or subject.