Summary, Discussion of Findings, Recommendations and Future Research
This chapter will sum up the intent, methodological analysis, and findings of this probe. Following the drumhead, treatment of these findings will be provided, and restrictions will be presented. Finally recommendations will be suggested for future research.
Summary of Investigation
Populating in a planetary environment where information and engineering are altering as scientific discipline expounds new penetrations about everyday led pedagogues to recognize the importance of learning kids accomplishments which they will necessitate as grownups, and to go more effectual scholars. Most, if non all, today 's pedagogues have agreed on both the enormous value of creativeness and the possibility of learning and heightening originative ability ( Runco, 2007 ) .
Since all human existences are innately originative and able to develop originative abilities and believing accomplishments, many learning plans ( e. g.the CoRT plan) which aimed to develop and strength originative abilities have been established.
Creativity is of import to everyone and ADHDs are no exclusion.
What strategies, so, might be appropriate for regular and particular instruction pupils in the same educational scene? Research conducted by Jaben ( 1983, 1986 ) with specific larning handicapped pupils suggested creativeness preparation might be one such scheme. Gowan and Torrance ( 1971 ) theorized that creativeness is a requirement for accomplishment. Baum and Owen ( 1988 ) investigated the features that differentiate high ability larning handicapped pupils from other pupils with larning disablements and found creativeness to be the distinguishing factor.
Novak ( 1991 ) suggested construct function is a metacognitive scheme. While concept maps can be constructed in several ways, Novak et Al ( 1983 ) theorized, “the greatest creativeness may be required to build a construct map without any supplied words or text, but pulling on an individual’s fund of cognition for some specific topic” ( P. 626 ) . Therefore, construct function is a metacognitive scheme which allows pupils to incorporate originative relationships between constructs.
If it has been theorized that creativeness is related to concept map development, would creativity developing impact the construct maps developed by pupils with ADHD?
It was hypothesized participants having creativeness preparation would non hit significantly higher on the posttest than those participants non having such creativeness preparation. Specifically, this survey asked the undermentioned inquiries as defined in chapter one:
Is there a correlativity between Concept mapping ability of pupils with ADHD and their public presentation inthe Torrance Trials of Creative Thinking( TTCT ) ?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher tonss on the TTCT than pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher tonss on the TTCT in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing mark higher tonss on the TTCT in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation produce more complex construct maps than pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation produce more complex construct maps in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing bring forth more complex construct maps in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher proposition’s tonss compared with the pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher proposition’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing mark higher proposition’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher hierarchy’s tonss compared with the pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher hierarchy’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing mark higher hierarchy’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher cross link’s tonss compared with the pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher cross link’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing mark higher cross link’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher example’s tonss compared with the pupils with ADHD who non make have such preparation?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who receive creativeness preparation mark higher example’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
Will pupils classified with ADHD who do non have creativeness developing mark higher example’s tonss in the posttest compared with the pretest?
The intent, so, of this survey was to look into the effects of creativeness upon the ability to bring forth more complex construct maps among 4th and 5th class pupils classified as holding ADHD. Sixty four pupils from 20 four schools in Riyadh participated in the probe. The topics were indiscriminately assigned to an experimental or control group. The groups consisted of 30 two in each group.
All sixty four topics were given developing in construct function and were asked to finish a construct map and the TTCT as a pretest. The experimental group was given 20 hours of creativeness preparation while the control group received no creativeness preparation. As a posttest step, all sixty four topics completed a 2nd construct map and the TTCT.
Datas were analyzed viathe Pearson product-moment correlativity coefficient,the t trial for two independent samples, andthe paired-sample T trial. Consequences indicated topics who received creativeness preparation developed significantly more complex construct maps than those topics who received no such creativeness preparation. Therefore, creativeness preparation enhances the construct mapping ability of pupils with ADHD.
Discussion of Findingss
The information analysis revealed a statistically important difference between the intervention group, which received creativeness fostering techniques, and the control group, which did non have creativeness heightening techniques. It is moderately plausible to reason from this creativeness intercession that student’s tonss on the TTCT and Cmap did increase with the execution of creativeness fostering techniques.
An scrutiny of the literature refering to this determination indicated that the consequences of this survey added to a turning organic structure of informations accumulated from research that attempts to understand the function of fostering creativeness through creativeness direction as an chance for increasing student’s creativeness. Sternberg ( 2003 ) found that pupils could larn certain sorts of determinations and techniques to heighten their creativeness. Moran et Al. ( 1983 ) further confirmed that eloquence is an indispensable constituent in the procedure of originative and original thought.
Golovin ( 1993 ) who analyzed the average creativeness tonss on the TTCT among 159 topics from eight schoolrooms. The intercession lasted for 10 yearss and measured the consequence of the control group having no creativeness preparation, and two intervention groups having creativeness, 50 proceedingss daily.
The survey showed that creativeness preparation had a positive consequence on the two intervention groups. The intervention of creativeness preparation was effectual as shown by the mensural consequence on the TTCT. Golovin concluded that creativeness preparation was statistically important and had a positive consequence on measured creativeness.
Jaben ( 1983 ) used a pretest-posttest design with 49 pupils from two intermediate-level larning disablements schoolrooms. This survey usedthe Purdue Creative Thinking Programfor a 14-week intercession to mensurate the consequence of creativeness direction. The survey found that the learning disablements intervention group made important additions over the control group. The additions were measured utilizing the TTCT. Jaben concluded that based on the consequences, creativeness programming such asthe Purdue Creative Thinking Programcan heighten the eloquence, flexibleness, originality, and amplification of pupils labeled as acquisition disabled.
Jaben ( 1986 ) repated the above-named survey. The intent of this survey was to analyze the consequence of direction on larning handicapped students’ divergent thought. Again the sample included 50 LD participants mensurating the consequence of creativeness direction throughthe Purdue Creative Thinking Programin a 14-week intercession. Again, the acquisition handicapped intervention group had significantly higher TTCT tonss than the acquisition disabled control group.
Schack ( 1993 ) investigated the effects of a originative job work outing course of study on pupils of changing ability. The topics included 276 in-between school pupils in six schools. The students’ labels designated them as gifted, awards, or norm. The pupils were rated on eloquence, flexibleness, and originality harmonizing tothe Creative Problem Solving ( CPS )standards. The findings concluded that no one ability degree gained more significantly than another.
Many theoreticians ( de Bono, 1986 ; Gordon, 1961 ; Renzulli and Reis, 1997 ; Schilchter, 1991, 1997 ) besides confirm the impact of creativeness plans on the sweetening of originative thought.
Both the reappraisal of literature and information analysis clearly demonstrated that the usage of creativeness heightening techniques increase the originative thought of both regular instruction pupils and pupils designated as particular instruction pupils, hence creativeness preparation is a technique that can be employed in an incorporate schoolroom comprising of regular instruction pupils with pupils who are classified as particular needs pupils.
Russell and Meikamp ( 1994 ) tout the congratulationss of creativeness preparation as a scheme worthy of execution for developing metacognitive accomplishments in pupils of all abilities.
In the present survey a benefit of the creativeness developing intercession may be the development of metacognitive schemes as measured by construct function. Students were encouraged during the preparation to be more fluid, flexible, original, and elaborative.
As the topics developed their accomplishments in each of these countries, they were encouraged to developed originative thoughts for look that were unlike thoughts from any other member of the preparation group, and they were given the chance to generalise their freshly found ability to a touchable merchandise. Generalization of the cognitive schemes presented suggested meacognition was happening. This was evidenced by the complexness of the maps produced by the pupils in the experimental group.
In decision, the consequences of the present survey indicated that there was a important difference between the intervention and control group on posttest tonss. Because these two groups were tantamount before get downing the intercession, but significantly different after the creativeness intercession, it is sensible to reason that student’s scores did increase with the execution of creativeness heightening techniques.
Learning creativeness heightening techniques such as eloquence, flexibleness, originality, and amplification helped the pupils in the intervention group to develop the metacognitive accomplishments necessary for fostering creativeness, ensuing in the assurance needed to exert originative abilities ; therefore, bring forthing a more complex construct maps than pupils in the control group.
Another determination is that there is a relationship between the TTCT tonss and concept map public presentation. This determination indicates that those pupils who did better construct maps besides score better in the TTCT.
Concept mapping tacninc have been used as assessment tacnic ( see? ) . From the consequence above ( strong positive correlativity was found (R=0.961,Phosphorus& A ; lt ; 0.0001 ) it is possible to reason that there is a little possibility to utilize construct function to measure originative ability. However, the strong positive correlativity found between TTCT and construct function is non plenty to back up the above suggestion of utilizing Cmap to measure creativeness, because the population of this survey is implemented by their age, Gender and disablement moreover it a little sample to be usage to measure correlativities, thenceforth the research worker suggest that analyzing the relation between Cmap and TTCT as a facture analysis survey utilizing a preventative similar to that used to develop the TTCT ( that is, a big sample ( more than 10,000 capable ) , wade scope of development age ( 5 to +18 ) Wade scope of development ability, ( e. g. gifted, LD, mental retarded, normal ) wade scope of academic lubricating oil ( from grandfather to 12 graders ) and both gender ) can assist to understand the relation between Cmap and TTCT, in specific, to reply the undermentioned inquiries: is there a correlativity between construct function ability and the originative ability, the entire mark on Cmap and onthe TTCT. Is the ability of originality in TTCT correlative with that of cross links in Cmap, eloquence with propositions, flexibleness with hierarchy and amplification with illustrations?
Boundary lines and Restrictions
Boundary lines provide descriptions of the population to which generalisations accurately may be made ( Locke et al. , 1993 ) . Boundary lines suggest how the survey will be narrowed in range ( Creswell, 1994 ) . These boundary lines may impact the external cogency. Based on Creswell ( 1994 ) and Locke et al. , ( 1993 ) people, topographic points, and times are the three major menaces to external cogency. The research worker identified three boundary lines, which affected the pertinence and generalisation to the scenes and populations.
First, this survey was delimited by its limitation to research the consequence ofthe CoRTplanas an enhancement tool on the originative thought of kids with ADHD who 4th and 5th graders. Enhancement of creativeness in this survey was measured by both the TTCT and the complexness of Cmap. This survey did non address gender differences nor address the usage of prescribed for the intervention of ADHD even though all of the participants were taking medicine for their intervention of their ADHD. Therefore, because of the focussed population used in this survey, generalisations to other populations are made with cautiousness.
In add-on, this survey was conducted in Riyadh which is the capital metropolis of the land of Saudi Arabia ; therefore the consequences from this survey may non be generalizable to a rural scene. Finally, the survey was farther delimited by the continuance, which was three months. This may hold affected the pertinence.
Restrictions set up the boundaries, exclusions, reserves and makings inherent in every survey ( Castetter and Heisler, 1994 ) . Restrictions hence identify possible failings of the survey.
A major restriction to this survey was the size of the sample, this may due to the voluntary nature of the survey. In add-on, all participants are misss ; hence this survey did non address gender. It would hold been interesting to hold male childs in the survey for gender comparing.
Another restriction is that the intent of this survey was non to quantify a preparation plan for instructors but instead to researchthe CoRTplanwhich may be employed by instructors when working with kids who have ADHD.
Finally, the survey dose non investigates the relationship between increased construct map complexness and accomplishment additions in content countries.
Although creativeness is frequently thought of as a natural endowment, creativeness heightening techniques and originative consciousness can be good for bettering a student’s originative abilities and originative thought. The overall findings of this survey demonstrated the benefits of utilizing creativeness plan in fostering creativeness through creativeness heightening techniques such as eloquence, flexibleness, originality, and amplification ensuing in the development of originative merchandises on the TCCT and complex Cmap.
The deductions of this survey are presented as recommendations for pedagogues, pupils, and the field of instruction in general for implementing creativeness plans and supplying chance for pupils to foster creativeness, therefore impacting and bettering creativeness and originative merchandises.
Gardner ( 2000 ) believed that the instruction of the hereafter calls for a basically different sort of instruction. Education should concentrate on disciplinary signifiers flexibly designed in learning pupils to work out new jobs and make new lines of idea.
The same procedures used in job resolution are used in creativeness preparation. Students are taught to develop many possible solutions to the job ( eloquence ) , to sort these solutions into likely classs ( flexibleness ) , to bring forth alone thoughts that have non been presented before ( originality ) , and to spread out upon these thoughts to increase utility ( amplification ) . Thus creativeness preparation is developing in job resolution. Educators should supply pupils with chances to show creativeness in content, procedure, and merchandise.
Research surveies suggest that the usage of creativeness fostering techniques can profit pupils in both procedure and merchandise by learning the metacognitive accomplishments necessary and supplying chance in the development of originative and critical thought. The consequences of this survey formalize other research on the usage of creativeness direction. Creativity should go an built-in portion of the educational procedure and non be considered the fluff of the course of study.
Educational course of study should concentrate on learning pupils to take an active function in the originative procedure through metacognition. It should endeavour to present pupils to believing non merely about what they think, but how they think for bettering originative processing and originative production. Iimplementing and utilizing creativeness heightening techniques are imperative if creativeness heightening methods are to go a critical portion of the educational course of study.
It is besides imperative that pupils learn to foster their creativeness in both procedure and merchandise. Students should be given the chance to show originative thoughts and ideas in open-ended activities that allow originative look with no right or incorrect replies. Metacognition, originative thought, and originative look are life accomplishments that are imperative to students’ future successes ; and hence, must be nurtured and enhanced.
All pupils should be challenged to make the pinnacle of success that merely comes through deeper apprehension and pattern of the originative procedure. The execution of creativeness direction can travel pupils to higher degrees of originative public presentation.
Given the intricate relationship between creativeness direction and improved originative public presentation, pedagogues must let creativeness heightening techniques such as eloquence, flexibleness, originality, and amplification to go an built-in portion of the activities performed daily in the educational teaching method of school course of study.
When developing course of study for exceeding pupils, larning manners and instructional schemes which the person pupil possesses are indispensable considerations. Given the consequences of this survey, it is suggested that creativeness preparation be included as a instruction scheme to advance both metacognition and higher order thought ( analysis, synthesis, and rating ) .
This survey besides has deductions for instructors developing plans. Traditionally, creativeness preparation has been an built-in of instructor readying for those trained to work with the mentally gifted. If so, as this survey suggests, creativeness preparation is besides effectual with pupils who are non classified mentally gifted, so instructors of these pupils should be prepared to learn and foster creativeness.
This research suggests that a better apprehension of the nature of creativeness and the possible advantages ADHD kids may take to the design of learning schemes and to the planning of educational environments that maximize particular acquisition manners, lessening comorbidity, and do usage of particular endowment and potency.
The research and intercession on ADHD now is excessively focused on placing lacks ( Frick and Lahey, 1991 ; McBurnett et Al. ; 1993 ) and rectifying them ( Burcham et al. ; 1993 ) . It would be valuable for schools and parents to be able to concentrate on strengths every bit good as failing. Labels may non merely impact the manner kids are perceived by the instructor but besides their self-pride. Therefore, it is of extreme importance for instructors and parents to work together to bolster self-esteem and to place and foster strengths every bit much as possible.
As pedagogues, it is our duty to plan educational environments in which their endowments can be developed.
A recommendation could be taken from Wei ( 1997 ) to find the appropriate educational arrangement and manner of learning from which ADHD originative kids could profit. The kids who learn good in the conventional scene should stay at that place, and those who do non should hold the option to be placed in smaller, experience-based acquisition environments.
An apprehension of creativity’s many dimensions may take to reorganisation of educational environments so that maximal chances exist for originative behaviours to emerge and for each kid to develop in the manner that is most suitable to his/her ain particular endowments.
Throughout both the literature and research on the subject of creativeness, one point was clear and concurred by all: more qualitative and quantitative research for measuring and developing creativeness is necessary if creativeness direction is to be come a critical portion of the educational course of study. Research based methods for measuring and fostering creativeness should to be developed, understand, and applied suitably for adding pupils in the originative procedure, ensuing in the development of quality merchandises by independent and originative minds.
The limited sum of research on this capable suggests that the countries examined in this thesis would profit from future probes. An extension of this survey with the same groups is indispensable to find the impact of creativeness preparation upon other rating steps as determined by school classs, accomplishment tonss, and self concept stock lists.
Further recommendations include intercessions of longer continuance to show the long-run advantages of utilizing creativeness fostering techniques. A larger sample size would besides be good to formalize this survey and increase dependability in generalising the consequences to a larger population.
Future research would profit from holding a separate control group of kids holding troubles in school but who do non run into the diagnostic standards for ADHD so that comparings could be made.
If creativeness preparation is effectual with pupils who are ADHD in footings of construct function, how might it impact other countries of exceptionality such as mild mental deceleration?
Since pupils with mental deceleration and those with mild disablements are besides being integrated into the regular instruction schoolroom, other surveies should be conducted with these populations.
Additionally, the procedure of creativeness preparation and construct map development could be explored as an alternate manner to measure pupils classified as mildly disabled. Traditionally, cognition acquired by pupils classified as mildly disabled can non ever be measured by pencil and paper trials. This method might supply an extra step for schoolroom instructors.
Many can reason that there is a relationship and similar features between ADHD and creativeness ( Cramond, 1994 ; Frick and Lahey, 1991 ; Hartmann, 1997 ; and Weiss, 1997 ) . The exact nature of the relationship between ADHD and creativeness is non known at this clip. Both are really complex concepts.
However, one can non show with the fluctuation that ADHD causes creativeness or portion of it. It can easy be assumed that other factors are involved ( disposition, cognitive aptitude, genetic sciences, lacking societal accomplishments, academic underachievement, and legion other environmental variables ) . Possibly ADHD and creativeness are similar concepts, but farther academic research in this peculiar country is needed
It can be concluded that all ability degree pupils can profit from creativeness heightening techniques. If so creativeness can impact originative ability with both regular pupils and those pupils classified as particular instruction pupils, and these consequences are generalizable, so the statement for incorporating exceeding pupils into the regular schoolroom utilizing the same instruction schemes may hold virtue.
Creativity preparation appears to be a scheme worthy of usage by instructor with pupils in an incorporate scene. The initial consequences of this survey were interesting and promising, but there is still considerable work to be done in many countries that could be good to the kids, their households, and instructors.
participants on the present survey were mean, less than norm, and extremely originative harmonizing to their consequences on the TTCT. Semelar to that of Cramond, 1994a, B, 1995 ;
Although some of the participants of the present survey score high scor in the TTCT, it is non the perpuse of this studay to exame explore creativeness among ADHDs or to enderstand the coection between creativeness and ADHD. The pourpes of this studay is to exame whether or non a creativeness treaning plan will assist pupils with ADHD to develop more complex
Recomadition: Mothers developing plans is good for poth kids with ADHD and female parents ( see Weiss and Hechtman P32 )
For recomandiotns see keetam ( Gul 2006 )
Monsen and Frederickson, 2004
Sherman et al. , 2006
On their survey on a sample of 151 kids aged 10-11 old ages Wallach and Kogan ( 1965 ) proposed four classs of features, classified on the footing of their degrees of creativeness and intelligence:
High creativity-low intelligence: their chief features are:
Angry struggle with themselves and their school environment.
Feelingss of unworthiness and insufficiency.
Able to bloom cognitively.
Low creativity-high intelligence: their chief features are:
Addicted to the school accomplishment.
Strive continually for academic excellence because they perceive academic failure as ruinous.
High creativity-high intelligence: their chief features are:
Can exert within themselves both control and freedom.
Have both grownups like and childlike behaviors.
Low creativity-low intelligence: their chief feature is:
Engage in assorted defensive manoeuvres such as intensive societal activity or passiveness or psychosomatic symptoms.
Yet many of these incorporate pupils bring to the regular schoolroom larning features that are specific to their exceptionalities. For illustration, pupils with specific larning disablements have trouble cognizing how to larn ( Plloway, et al. , 2002 ) chapter one. Recomadition: Research indicates metacognition –knowing how to learn- is an country of trouble for these pupils ( Bos and Vaughn, 2005 ) . Furthermore, mildly handicapped pupils experience troubles geting and utilizing metacognitive schemes.