Omar become the 2nd Muslim swayer after decease of Muhammad and ruled for 10 old ages. He was a taking advisor to the Islamic prophesier Muhammad
Omar was a great supporter and comrade of the Prophet Mohammed. Omar converted to Islam after 6 old ages of Mohammed 's first disclosure and spent 18 old ages attach toing the Prophet. He succeeded the first calif Abu Bakr on 23 rd of grand 634 as the 2nd calif and changed the historical building of Islamic history. Rising from the rank of a shepherd and a junior-grade merchandiser he became the true architecture of the Islamic civilisation. ( Wikipedia, 2011 )
His female parent 's name was Hantammah and male parent 's name was Khattab ibn Nufayl, from the folk of Banu Makhzum. Omar was born to a in-between category household and when he was a kid his male parent put him to the undertaking of croping camels. His male parent was a tough taskmaster, and Omar frequently recalled how his male parent beaten him up pitilessly whenever there was a error on his portion. It seems that Omar grew up as a typical Arab male child -a tall immature adult male with a robust build and impressive character.
It is believed that among the Quraish of those yearss merely 17 people were able to read and compose and Omar was one of them. He was really intelligent and had a eminent personality, intellectually and physically every bit good. He was a good public talker. By all available histories he seemed to be an mean Arab young person.At the same clip he was gifted with self-respect, a broad-mind and a strong sense of justness. He appeared to be a adult male of strong strong beliefs, a good friend, and a bad enemy. He was ever ready to stand up against the oppressor and recommend the cause of the weak. Later in his young person he took up the traditional profession of a bargainer. As a bargainer, he travelled extensively to Syria, Iraq, and Yemen, Rome and Persia and other topographic points every bit good. He was a good bargainer ; he made good money and developed a good geopolitical apprehension of the part every bit good while going. ( Islamic Point )
Omar converted to Islam in 616, before that he was the fiercest opposition of Islam. Interestingly, he resolved to kill Prophet Mohammed to complete Islam wholly.He believed that the coming of new religion of Islam will interrupt the integrity of Quraish. Omar was the most inexorable and really barbarous in oppressing Muslims.
Converting to Islam
In the twelvemonth 616 Umar got converted to Islam. Once he read the poetries of Quran, he was so impressed by the deity of the poetries he accepted Islam on that really same twenty-four hours in forepart of the prophesier and his comrades. Omar 's transition gave assurance to the Muslims and they felt powered. It was seen as the triumph of Islam, Muslims did n't offer supplications at al-harem mosque until Omar accepted Islam ( Abdullah bin Masoud, n.d. ) . Because of all this the Prophet himself gave him the rubric of Al-Farooq, one who distinguishes true from falsity.
Now Islam was deriving popularity ; in 622 A.D. because of the increasing popularity of Islam in Medina, Mohammed ordered his followings to migrate to Medina. Omar besides went to Medina. Muslims lived peacefully in Medina for about a twelvemonth before Quraish ground forces attacked Medina.Omar played cardinal function in the conflicts between Quraish and Muslims. ( Encyclopedia )
He succeeded the first calif Abu Bakr in 634A.D. and played a cardinal function in determining the history of Islam. Under him the Islamic Empire was expanded at a rate that could merely be compared to the great Roman Empire. His opinion abilities, administrative accomplishments and his intelligently coordinated onslaughts against the Iranian Empire resulting in the conquering of the Persian Empire, established him as a great military and political leader of the epoch.
But it was non really easy for him to acquire things under control as he was non a popular figure because of his stringency and bossy nature. Abu Bakr 's comrades ab initio discouraged the thought of Caliphate of Omar but Abu Bakr had other programs and he assured his high ranking comrades that one time Omar becomes calif he would be a changed adult male. Omar was really clear and did conveyed that he will be soft with them who followed the regulations and would be rough and ill-mannered with those who wo n't follow the same.
He wanted the well being of the hapless and underprivileged ; because of his democrat policies he quickly gained popularity. ( Encyclopedia )
Political and civil disposal
Umar 's authorities was a unitary authorities ; Caliph had the supreme political authorization. His imperium was divided into independent and states. States were divided into territories. There were 100 territories in the district of Umar. The Wali ( Provincial governors ) were the decision maker of these states, which were recruited by Umar. These were the officer 's place at the provincial degree was which were appointed by Omaror the provincial governors:
Katib ( Chief Secretary ) , Sahib-ul-Kharaj, ( Revenue Collector ) , Sahib-ul-Ahdath, ( Police head ) , Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal ( Treasury Officer ) and Qadi ( Chief Judge ) .
In some of the territories there were separate military officers. The Commanding officer of the ground forces in most of the topographic points remained the same and that was the Governor ( Wali ) . Whenever the appointed anyone they used to make that all in composing. Nothing was without paperwork. When they were seeking to name or appointed Wali the instrument of instructions was made to the modulating behavior of Governors. ( Wikipedia, 2010 )
Omar was one of the greatest decision makers of his epoch. Omar believed in consolidating his power and political influence. With the proper counsel of Umar, Islamic took a huge alteration and grew large clip as a really fast rate. He introduced several administrative reforms ; he made a Shura ( advisory ) council and sought advice from them on affairs of province personal businesss. He divided the immense Islamic imperium in different states and appointed a governor who was answerable to caliph. The Governors were supposed to assist in disposal and whosoever used their office to acquire rich was badly punished.
As a Caliph, Omar was ready to accept and follow what was good in other civilisations as good. Wherever possible, he tried to larn from others and adopted the advanced techniques and administrative patterns of the conquered people as good. For illustration, when Persia was conquered, Windmills were in extended usage in Persia, Omar ordered the building of windmills in several Arab states, including Medina.
For the first clip military was organized professionally and made a province section. Finance, accounting, revenue enhancement and exchequer sections were created for the first clip in the Islamic Empire. Police, prisons and postal units were established. ( Islamic Point )
Agribusiness was promoted during his Caliphate. Irrigation system was reformed ; old canals were excavated and new 1s built. Large countries of land were brought under cultivation. Roadss were built and were on a regular basis patrolled. A traveller could travel with safety on the roads of the immense Islamic Empire.
When Omar became the Caliph of Islam, most of the states economic system was based on bondage. Omar was the 1 who raised his voice against bondage. He took specific step to extinguish bondage every bit far as possible.
The immense districts of Islamic Empire - West Asia and North Africa were transformed into a free trade zone. Business brought prosperity. Omar understood the importance of instruction ; instruction was encouraged and instructors were paid good. The survey of Quran, Hadith, linguistic communication and literature and penmanship received backing from the Empire. Omar was himself a poet and an impressive speechmaker. He constructed Over 4,000 mosques during his Caliphate.
Technology and new administrative patterns such as the building of windmills, formation of accounting section were encouraged. In the imperium new roads were laid out and old 1s were repaired. Omar organized a population nose count in the Empire following the illustration of the China.
Muslim rules extended increasingly during the Caliphate of Umar, about 4000 mosques were constructed. He provided visible radiations to the mosques and superior fabric to cover the Kaaba.
It happened in the twelvemonth 638 that Arabia fell into drouth which was besides been so followed by a dearth. To do this alteration and to do it better Umar tried many things out of which 1 was hosting dinner every dark. It was approximately more than hundred 1000 people who used to come for the dinner every dark. Conditionss began to better in early 639. When dearth ended so Umar went to see and steer the people. Not merely he guided but besides gave good sum, rations and besides exempted them from revenue enhancement ( zakat ) for that twelvemonth and the twelvemonth following it.
Omer went for hadj in Mecca when he was assassinated. He was assassinated in response to the Muslim conquering of Persia, by a Iranian in 644. Character assassination of Umar was been assigned by Abu Lulu.
The history of Omar shows and explains many things. He was a adult male with great powers of head. He was really stiff in doing justness and with inflexible unity.