The primary focus is the new business capabilities that could be developed using present infrastructure and ensures that several costs are saved in fetching better use of resources. The existing infrastructure that envelopes the dimensions of WAN and SMS way of doing business would forecast better to envelope the new generation technologies of Web 2. 0 to enhance the customer experience and communication. The business can use the feature of blogs, wikis, social networking tools, tags and social bookmarking, multimedia sharing, podcasts, RSS feeds and several other tools to communicate better.
1. Blogs According to Blood (2000) there are essentially two types of weblog: those that emphasize the diary and comment aspect, and those that emphasize hyperlinks. The former may seek to influence wider public opinion, or merely to raise the profile of the blogger; the latter act as a filter system, looking at what exists on the Web and recommending content that might be of interest to visitors. If bloggers make mistakes in the information they publish, they rely on their peers to point out any errors (Johnson and Kaye, 2004).
Thus, Blogs have unique features that traditional web media does not have. 2. Wikis The original wiki, The Portland Pattern Repository was created by Full Name Cunningham in 1995. The definition of a wiki is a web page or set of WebPages that can be easily edited by anyone who is allowed access. The overriding goal of a wiki is to become a shared repository of knowledge with the knowledge base growing over time. Chawner and Lewis (2004) noted that a wiki is an example of “social software”, “a type of software that makes it easy for groups of people to work in a virtual environment”.
As an alternative to the global editing of wiki’s, restricting access to registered users only is often used for professional, work group wikis. 3. Social networking technologies (Myspace, Facebook, Flickr …. ) There is an obvious parallel with the development of social software technologies such as MySpace. In Myspace, as a new person joins a social networking site, other users of the site also benefit. Once the Network Effect begins to build and people become aware of the increase in a service’s popularity, a product often takes off very rapidly in a marketplace. MySpace membership rose to a reported 87 million.
The impact of social networking on society at large would define the various impacts on society and the people at large. The various impacts and the positive sparks make sure that all the various impacts are taken to its full advantage and taken up at large. The various impacts are as follows: • Communicate effectively for sharing personal details and experiences thus creating a world among them. Websites like MySpace. com, FaceBook. com and Orkut. com assist a person to have a representation over the internet and allow each other to express one, create a community of friends, joining other communities and make new ones.
• The technology has brought in powerful combination of Internet capabilities and web technologies that promotes creating such spaces over the internet in the form of online communities. • Internet is adopted by a larger portion of the population of people who are not necessarily technophile and who are definitely more interested in the “human and social life”, it makes human role more prominent. Their participation in digital forums would attract the community of interest like chatting, posting exciting stories, news events, blogs, video, playing games and many others.
• Interestingly, even the more traditional information perspective is becoming extended with social aspects helping to better manage this information: For instance opinion and social translucence mechanisms (Erickson, 2002) are used in electronic marketplaces such as eBay to facilitate the evaluation of the quality and the relevance of product information and coordination mechanisms are used for instance in Wikipedia to facilitate the collaborative construction of an online encyclopedia. • Chatting forms an integral part of communication in today’s life and almost everyone is enveloped in it.
It enables us to form new identities while communicating over the internet. It creates a visual appearance of a person behind the internet and we can choose among a large community of such identities as the profile speaks well. Online communities are currently over owing with identities. It is not difficult to utilize multiple identities on the Web. We can easily obtain a new identity on the Web such as a portal ID, an email address or an identity for a new blog. This can create the following problems, making it difficult to trust information within an online community:
• Irresponsible behavior by one • Identity misuse for obscene depiction and activities • Spamming • Persuade one to wrongly fall to hindrances • A person can distribute information without peer verification or peer-review, creating plagiarism. There are some methods, however, to prevent the issue of identity corruption. The stealth of identity is quite frequent and one can take up illegal roles to send unhealthy messages or photos to others to put their incitement forward. False identities who pretend to be one are often not.
Assuming an identity makes one feel in a different world and makes them feel good, feel important and validated, it may be in a negative sense. Adding their pictures and customizing feature makes sure that one is able to create a presence with a lot of effort and time. This acts as a virtual world which the newer generation technology brings forth. The social networking involves a lot of ethical issues around it and affects an individual, organization and community at large. The ethical issues are as follows:
• At the organizational level , employees are trusted to maintain professional code of ethics and behavior for not putting up a face on the social book marking sites with various negative intentions and either writing or mentioning criticisms against others or their superiors. It diligently harms their self being and status. • Revealing everything about the employee in the organization would prone him to be tracked by intruders carrying wrong intentions to fetch better interests for malpractices. It proves quite unprofessional to expose all information and create a false identity space over the social networking sites.
• The menacing emails threaten and abuse an individual and should be avoided. No emails must be sent such that a person suffers sexual abuse, religious or minority harassment. • A carefully worded policy regarding email will go a long way to correct any false expectations on the part of people and can help avoid legal problems as well as negative effects on morale. (Spinello, 1995, p. 126) The ethics on downloading is enforced very seriously and often advises people to understand the value of artists and their contribution to the society.
The music industry is aimed at spreading information globally in creating a brand for the artists so that they continue to do the great job. Quality has value and people need to understand that in their inmost cords. The regulators thus understood the need for ethics to protect copyright infringements. 4. Tags and social book marking It is a web application where you can create “tags” for different URLs that you find that interest you. The multiple tags can be created for one URL the application will then give you URLs that other users have tagged with the same exact tag. A term you might hear related to tags is Folksonomy.
This is a collection of tags that an individual has created for his/her personal use. Other apps like Flickr (photos) YouTube (video) and Odeo (podcasts) allow their content to be socially tagged. For example: http://del. icio. us/ 5. Multimedia sharing The websites that enable the storage and sharing of multimedia. The end users upload their own multimedia. The multimedia content examples: http://www. youtube. com (for video), http://www. flickr. com (for photographs), and http://odeo. com (for podcasts). 6. Podcasts It originally called audio Blogs. The audio recordings in MP3 format.
It can be played on desktop computer or other MP3 devices (most famous is Apple’s iPod MP3 player). The video podcasts (vidcast or vodcast) now available for example: http://www. apple. com/itunes/store/podcasts. html. 7. RSS feeds and syndication The user subscribes to “RSS feeds” from different websites. The user then installs software called an “aggregator” or “feed reader” onto their computer. The software periodically checks for updates in RSS feeds from different subscribed to websites and updates user with info from the feed. One issue is that there are different RSS formats, and thus compatibility issues.
A new syndication system named “Atom” is an attempt to clear up these compatibility issues. Information about blog postings (usually the headlines) are made available via RSS feeds. Podcast listeners subscribe to RSS feeds to be made aware of new podcasts. Impact of web2. 0 on the way people interact Web 2. 0 in practice is ideology through which the Web is a platform for social interaction and information exchange. Boyd (2003) wrote an article describing ‘social software supporting the desire of individuals to affiliate, their desire to be pulled into groups to achieve their personal goals.
’ Today, many people are setting up and writing blogs and working together to create information through the use of wikis, blogs and MySpace. Web 2. 0 software has emerged to facilitate new activities, and encourages a more human approach to interactivity on the Web. Thus, With Web 2. 0 technologies you not only get the results of knowledge stored in a searchable fashion, but you also get the process of creating the knowledge made observable. New Technologies to consider: The primary drivers of the Web 2. 0 are the basic emergence of various web technology and standards.
Figure 2: Asynchronous nature of AJAX (URL: www. securityfocus. com/infocus/1868) b. REST Representational state transfer (REST) is software architecture which makes sure that all the resources are defined and addressed by the way in using a global identifier. To modify these resources one requires using the communication protocol (HTTP) client and server to exchange demonstration of the messages. It facilitates improved response times and server loading. The client side software would be less required and makes the complexity less on the client side.
It is precisely made to scale hypermedia distribution with its architectural neutral style. The REST principals state that application states and operations are defined as resources which has links share a common interface for the transfer of state. Figure 3: REST derivation by style constraints. c. SOAP W3Schools. com (2008) mentions that SOAP stands as Simple Object Access Protocol is an application level protocol as a transport level protocol. Using SOAP the HTTP permit safer communication behind proxies, firewalls. It is a versatile approach to allow various users of different transport protocols.
The primary feature is that it is platform dependent, language dependent, quite simple and extensible. These features make sure that all it is compatible across platforms. It provides an efficient way to communicate among various applications. The operation modeling is quite doubtful and the POST based binding is often a security threat. Figure 4: SOAP in the Web Architecture (URL:http://books. google. co. in/books? id=LEpPzQ5mRDoC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=SOAP%2Bmodel&source=web&ots=1Ng3M1Fbja&sig=Ktccw9CqiEK5QJDLdel9zQxSzdo&hl=en#PPA72,M1)
Advantages and disadvantages of such technologies: From the consumer point of view: Advantage – Better collaboration and expression The collaboration with various likeminded users and in various communities would encourage them to participate in various promotions and get the best out of it. Disadvantage - Identity theft: Websites like MySpace. com, FaceBook. com and Orkut. com assist a person to have a representation over the internet and allow each other to express one, create a community of friends, joining other communities and make new ones.
When over the internet people love dealing with other human beings than to information or machines. Internet is adopted by a larger portion of the population of people who are not necessarily technophile and who are definitely more interested in the “human and social life”, it makes human role more prominent. Their participation in digital forums would attract the community of interest like chatting, posting exciting stories, news events, Blogs, video, playing games and many others.
Interestingly, even the more traditional information perspective is becoming extended with social aspects helping to better manage this information: For instance opinion and social translucence mechanisms (Erickson, 2002) are used in electronic marketplaces such as E-Bay to facilitate the evaluation of the quality and the relevance of product information and coordination mechanisms are used for instance in Wikipedia to facilitate the collaborative construction of an online encyclopedia. The major factor of identity is theft of one’s actual self being and this poses a greater theft in maintaining the profiles.
One can post illicit comments for making the other self feel embarrassed or pass the blame to someone else. Disadvantage - Access control: The various models to allow people to their access areas, protecting document and profile format, save passwords and various others is quite useful for making the large amount of internet malicious users to harm their self being and online identity. The various access areas for inviting the people to join their friends circle and using keywords to know their profile.
The security policies at this stage would be to disallow any unknown person to make the right move for getting the job done. To take in enough ethics for fetching the positive attitude for prevailing the correct methodology for communicating across other people and their communities. From the employer point of view: Advantage - Better communication and reach The better ways to tap the customers and know their communicating elements would fetch the business enough customization to place the users at the center of their products and services. Disadvantage - Denial of service attacks:
The various attacks regarding the concerns to stop or slow someone from accessing a particular website or information. There are some service denial attacks for financial information and to make sure that right and timely information does not reach the intended recipient. Disadvantage - Content exploitation: It is quite often seen in practice wherein the content is misrepresented with wrong and misleading information about the subject. Often the content which is uploaded and saved by users are not properly referenced like Wikipedia and are nor taken as valid sources for fetching content in many universities.
The various objectives which are desired to be achieved would be quite misleading in such cases and make sure that all the various thoughts are achieved to its maximum limit. References/Bibliography Abram, S (2005). Web 2. 0—huh? Library 2. 0, librarian 2. 0. Information Outlook, 9, 44–5. Albrecht, T. L. , Johnson, G. M. and Walther, J. B. (2003). “Understanding communications processes in focus groups”, in Morgan, D. L. (Ed. ), Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art, Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Blood, R. (2000). “Weblogs: a history and perspective”. Retrieved 4, January 2009 from www.
rebeccablood. net/essays/weblog_history. html. Chawner, B and Lewis, P. H... (2004). “WikiWikiWebs: new ways of interacting in a web environment”, hand –out prepared for LITA National Forum, October 8-10,Sheraton West Port Lakeside Chalet,St Louis,MO, Retrieved 4, January 2009 from www. ala. org/ala/lita/litaevents/2004Forum/CS_WikiWikiWebs. PDF. Erickson, T. , Halverson, C. , Kellogg, W. A. , Laff, M. and Wolf, T. (2002); "Social Translucence: Designing SocInfrastructures that Make Collective Activity Visible". Communications of the ACM (Special Issue on Community, ed. J. Preece), Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 4044.