Imbalance in cardiac end product volume and peripheral opposition leads to a rise in blood force per unit area. ( 3 ) . Cardiac end product is defined as the volume of blood pumped from the bosom and Entire peripheral opposition is the opposition of flow of blood in smaller arteriolas and viscousness of blood ,
There are two chief types of high blood pressure viz. primary ( indispensable high blood pressure and secondary high blood pressure. In primary high blood pressure, high blood force per unit area is non accompanied by an implicit in disease. Secondary high blood pressure is a rise in arterial blood force per unit area due to an implicit in disease, examples include nephritic and neurotic diseases,
Early surveies of high blood pressure showed that there was a little addition in cardiac end product before any alteration in peripheral opposition. From these findings it was suggested that the cardic end product ab initio rises due to sodium and H2O retension, this leads to an autoregulatory rise in peripheral opposition. The cardiac end product so fell once more as a consequence of cardiovascular physiological reactions, nevertheless the blood force per unit area remained somewhat elevated
To understand the pathophysiology of high blood pressure, it is of import to understand the mechanisms involved in modulating blood pressure . The homeostatic mechanisms that taken topographic point .
Baroreceptors detect a alteration in force per unit area. Figure 1 shows the neurogenic mechanism triggered by high blood pressure. When the force per unit area rises an afferent signal is sent to the vasomotor system, in the myelin oblongata of the encephalon. This consequences in cut downing motorial sympathetic activity taking in arterial dilation and decreased myocardial contractility, therefore seeking to return force per unit area to its original value. In chronic high blood pressure the homeostatic physiological reactions are reset to a higher degree .
The mechanism of indispensable high blood pressure is non wholly known and is a subject that is presently under research.
The secernment of renin is initiated by a lessening in perfusion force per unit area in the kidney and alterations in Na concentration of the distal cannular fluid.
As shown in fig. Renin catabolises angiotensinogen, a protein from the liver, and signifiers angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is activated by angiotonin change overing enzyme and as a consequence it yields Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is 40 times more powerful in raising blood force per unit area as compared to noradrenalin. The renin-angiotensin system is besides thought to modulate the elimination of Na by the kidney
Phaeochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal secretory organ which causes increased secernment of the endocrine epinephrine. This leads to an increased arterial force per unit area. This is an illustration of secondary high blood pressure
Reflux neuropathy is a nephritic disease where the kidneys get disrupted due to the backward flow of piss in the kidney. The image below shows an affected arteria .
Factors that increase the hazard of Al suggested that high blood pressure should be seen as a multifactorial inflammatory disease. The survey showed that inflammatory processes play an of import function in prolonging systematic high blood pressure .
There are legion interventions for high blood pressure.
Primary high blood pressure
While sing the usage of drugs, we should do certain that the drug is... i.e. its benefits outweighs its side-effects.
Figure a'' demoing systems responsible for the homeostatic control of blood force per unit area together with mark sites for anti-hypertensive drugs
As shown in Fig the sympathetic nervous system, the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the tonically-active endothelium derived autocoids are the chief systems responsible in the ordinance of high blood pressure.
Mentioning to fig and postpone 1
Recently... et Al performed a complete Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical rating of the drug aliskiren. The survey showed that Aliskiren was a prospective anti-hypertensive drug et Al showed that usage of initial combination therapy of the drugs aliskiren and amlodipine for the control of blood force per unit area improves early ectiveness and is more effectual to each monotherapy in early control of blood force per unit area.
The intervention of high blood pressure by drugs is most effectual when accompanied with lifestyle alterations including regular exercising, healthy diet, weight and intoxicant decrease and no smoke.
Drug intervention for high blood pressure is non really effectual in all patients..et Al showed that pharmacological intervention was merely effectual on tierce of patients enduring from high blood pressure. The survey concluded that there was a important relationship between psychological factors and hapless high blood pressure control showed that 60-70 % of high blood pressure in grownups is caused by fleshiness and suggested mechanisms such as insulin opposition, Na keeping, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and altered vascular map are obesity-related high blood pressure suggested that consciousness of the disease is the most reasonable long term solution .
In decision, high blood pressure is a multifactorial disease, that is caused by a figure of factors including environmental factors, genetic sciences, lifestyle etc. The mechanism of high blood pressure is a subject which is still being researched. Depending upon the implicit in disease and the badness, secondary high blood pressure may be able to be treated surgically. Primary high blood pressure if diagnosed at an early phase can be combated with medical specialties and simple alterations like regular exercising, healthy low salt and low fat diet, reduced alcohol consumption etc.